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Mongol Conquests


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Mongol conquests

Mongol invasions progressed throughout the 13th century, resulting in the vast Mongol Empire which covered much of Asia and Eastern Europe by 1300.
The Mongol Empire emerged in the course of the 13th century by a series of conquests and invasions throughout Central and Western Asia, reaching Eastern Europe by the 1240s. The speed and extent of territorial expansion parallels the Hunnic/Turkic conquests of the Migration period (the 6th century Turkic Khaganate).
The territorial gains of the Mongols persisted into the 15th century in Persia (Timurid dynasty) and in Russia (Tatar and Mongol raids against Russian states), and into the 19th century in India (the Mughal Empire).

Central Asia

Genghis Khan forged the initial Mongol Empire in Central Asia, starting with the unification of the Mongol and Turkic central Asian confederations such as Merkits, Tartars, Mongols, and Uighurs. He then continued expansion of the Empire via invasion of the Khwarezmid Empire in what is modern-day Khorazm, Uzbekistan.


Large areas of Islamic Central Asia and northeastern Iran were seriously depopulated, as every city or town that resisted the Mongols was subject to destruction. In Termez, on the Oxus: "all the people, both men and women, were driven out onto the plain, and divided in accordance with their usual custom, then they were all slain". Each soldier was required to execute a certain number of persons, with the number varying according to circumstances. For example, after the conquest of Urgench, each Mongol warrior – in an army group that might have consisted of two tumens (units of 10,000) – was required to execute 24 people.

Middle East

The Mongols conquered, either by force or voluntary submission, the areas today known as Iran, Iraq, Syria, and parts of Turkey, with further Mongol raids reaching southwards as far as Gaza into the Palestine region in 1260 and 1300.

The major battles were the Siege of Baghdad (1258), when the Mongols sacked the city which for 500 years had been the center of Islamic power; and the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260, when the Muslim Egyptian Mamluks, were for the first time able to stop the Mongol advance at Ain Jalut, in the northern part of what today is known as the West Bank. One thousand northern Chinese engineer squads accompanied the Mongol Khan Hulegu during his conquest of the Middle East.

Mongol conquests

Expansion of the Mongol Empire
Date 1206- 1324
Location
Central Asia, East Asia, North Asia, Southwest Asia, Eastern Europe
Result Mongol victory and the fall of Mongol Empire
Belligerents
Jin Dynasty
Dali Kingdom
Western Xia
Song Dynasty
Manchuria
Khwarizmian Empire
Persia
Kievian Rus
Volga Bulgaria
Goryeo
Poland
Hungary
Croatia
Bulgaria
Serbia
Byzantium
Kamakura Shogunate
Vietnam
Champa
Myanmar
Java
Anatolia
Mesopotamia
Mamluk Sultanate
Sultanate of Rûm
Mongol Empire
Commanders and leaders
Caliph Al-Musta'sim
Hōjō Tokimune
Qalawun
Kitbuqa
Thihathu
Bela IV of Hungary
Brativoj and Butko Julijanov
Danilo of Halych
Shah Mohammed of Khworezm
Tran Hung Dao
Henry of Silesia
Jayakatwang of Java
and other
Genghis Khan
Ogedei
Batu Khan
Möngke Khan
Hulagu
Kublai Khan
Subutai
Burundai
Nogai Khan
Orda Khan
Muqali
Jebe Noyon
Bayan
and other

The Mongols were never able to expand farther than the Middle East due to a combination of political and geographic factors, such as lack of sufficient grazing room for their horses.



East Asia

Genghis Khan and his descendants invaded China, and forced Korea to become a vassal through an invasion of Korea. They attempted an invasion of Japan and Vietnam. Their biggest conquest was in conquering China and setting up their own Yuan Dynasty, though it was eventually overthrown by the native Chinese in 1368, who launched their own Ming Dynasty.



Europe

The Mongols invaded and destroyed Kievan Rus, also invading Poland and Hungary, among others. Over the course of three years (1237–1240), the Mongols destroyed and annihilated all of the major cities of Eastern Europe with the exceptions of Novgorod and Pskov.

Giovanni de Plano Carpini, the Pope's envoy to the Mongol Great Khan, traveled through Kiev in February 1246 and wrote:

"They [the Mongols] attacked Rus, where they made great havoc, destroying cities and fortresses and slaughtering men; and they laid siege to Kiev, the capital of Rus; after they had besieged the city for a long time, they took it and put the inhabitants to death. When we were journeying through that land we came across countless skulls and bones of dead men lying about on the ground. Kiev had been a very large and thickly populated town, but now it has been reduced almost to nothing, for there are at the present time scarce two hundred houses there and the inhabitants are kept in complete slavery."


 

Timeline

1205–1209 conquest of Western China
1207 conquest of Siberia
1211–1234 conquest of Northern China
1213–1235 conquest of Jin dynasty
1218–1220 conquest of Central Asia and Eastern Persia
1220-1223, 1235-1330 invasions of Georgia and the Caucasus
1220–1224 of the Cumans
1223–1236 invasion of Volga Bulgaria
1231–1259 invasion of Korea
Mongol invasion of Europe
          1237–1242 invasion of Rus
          1241 invasion of Poland (Battle of Legnica)
          1241 invasion of Hungary
          1241 invasion of Austria and Northeast Italy
          1241–1242 invasion of Croatia
          1242 invasion of Serbia and Bulgaria
1241-1244 invasion of Anatolia
1251-1259 invasion of Persia, Syria and Mesopotamia
1257, 1284, 1287 invasions of Vietnam
1258 invasion of Baghdad
1258-1259 invasion of Galych-Volhynia, Lithuania and Poland
1260 Battle of Ain Jalut
1260 Mongol raid raid against Syria
1264-1265 raid against Bulgaria and Thrace
1264-1308 invasion of Sakhalin Island
1271 raid against Syria
1274, 1281 invasions of Japan
1274 raid against Bulgaria
1275, 1277 raids against Lithuania
1277 battle of Abulustayn
1277 invasion of Myanmar
1279 invasions of Southern China
1281 invasion of Syria
1285 invasion of Hungary
1285 raid against Bulgaria
1287 invasion of Myanmar
1287 raids against Poland
1293 invasion of Java
1297 - 1308 Chagatai Khanate - Delhi Sultanate War
1299 invasion of Syria
1222-1327 Mongol invasions of India
1300 Mongol invasion of Myanmar
1300 Mongol invasion of Syria
1303 Invasion of Syria
1307 Mongol invasion of Gilan
1312 Mongol invasion of Syria
1324, 1337 Mongol raids against Thrace

 

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