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     Bihar State of India

 

Bihar is a state in eastern India. It is the 12th largest state in terms of geographical size at 38,202 sq mi (98,940 km2) and 3rd largest by population. Almost 58% of Biharis are below the age of 25, which is the highest proportion in India.
Bihar lies mid-way between West Bengal in the east and Uttar Pradesh in the west. It is bounded by the country of Nepal to the north and by Jharkhand to the south. The Bihar plain is divided into two parts by the river Ganges which flows through the middle from west to east. Bihar has notified forest area of 6,764.14 km², which is 6.8% of its geographical area. Hindi and Urdu are the official languages of the state, while the majority of the people speak Angika, Bhojpuri, Magadhi, Maithili and Bajjika.

Ancient Bihar (which consisted of Anga, Videha/Mithila, Magadha and Vajji/Vrijji) was a centre of power, learning and culture in ancient and classical India. Out of five "The Greats" from India, four greats belonged to this region of India, Magadh: Chandragupta Maurya, Ashoka, Samudragupta and Vikramaditya.From Magadha arose India's first and greatest empire, the Maurya empire as well as one of the world's most widely adhered-to religions, Buddhism.Magadha empires, notably under the Maurya and Gupta dynasties, unified large parts of South Asia under a central rule. Its capital Patna, earlier known as Pataliputra, was an important centre of Indian civilization. Nalanda was a centre of learning established by the 5th century CE in Bihar, which is also counted among the oldest and truly international universities, where people all over the world came for study. Bihar has distinction of giving the world its first democracy through Lichchivi (modern days Vaishali) during ancient era.

bihar locator

Today, Bihar lags behind the other Indian states in human, economic development terms. Economists and social scientists claim that this is a direct result of the skewed policies of the central government, such as the freight equalization policy, its apathy towards Bihar, lack of Bihari sub-nationalism (resulting in no spokesperson for the state), and the Permanent Settlement of 1793 by the British East India Company. The current state government has however made significant strides in improving governance.
The improved governance has led to an economic revival in the state through increased investment in infrastructure, better health care facilities, greater emphasis on education, and an abatement in crime and corruption. Indian and global business and economic leaders feel that Bihar now has good opportunity to sustain its growth and thus have shown interest in investing in the state. A recent New York Times article talks about the vastly improved law and order situation in the state and the phenomenal economic growth shown over the course of last 5 years. Another BBC article titled "Where 'backward' Bihar leads India" talked about how the state has made strides in the areas of women empowerment, judicial reforms, tax reforms, and public safety. Between 2003 and 2008, the inflow of foreign tourists saw a near-sixfold rise from 61,000 to 346,000.

The Mahabodhi Temple, among the four holy sites related to the life of the Lord Buddha and UNESCO World Heritage Site
To this date, Bihar has given three Bharat Ratnas (Highest Civilians of Modern India) to India: Dr Rajendra Prasad, Jayaprakash Narayan and Bismillah Khan and several other distinguished personalities.

sectriate bihar

Some More About Bihar .

Geography and climate

Bihar is a vast stretch of fertile plain. It is drained by the Ganges River, including its northern tributaries Gandak and Koshi, originating in the Nepal Himalayas and the Bagmati originating in the Kathmandu Valley that regularly flood parts of the Bihar plains. The total area covered by the state of Bihar is 94,163 km². the state is located between 21°-58'-10" N ~ 27°-31'-15" N latitude and between 83°-19'-50" E ~ 88°-17'-40" E longitude. Its average elevation above sea level is 173 feet (53 m).
The Ganges divides Bihar into two unequal halves and flows through the middle from west to east. Other Ganges tributaries are the Son River, Budhi Gandak, Chandan, Orhani and Falgu. Though the Himalayas begin at the foothills, a short distance inside Nepal and to the north of Bihar, the mountains influence Bihar's landforms, climate, hydrology and culture. Central parts of Bihar have some small hills, for example the Rajgir hills. To the south is the Chota Nagpur plateau, which was part of Bihar until 2000 but now is part of a separate state called Jharkhand.

Demographics

Bihar is the third most populated state of India with total population of 82,998,509 (43,243,795 male and 39,754,714 female). Nearly 85% of Bihar's population lives in rural areas. Almost 58% of Biharis are below 25 years age, which is the highest in India. The density is 881. The sex ratio is 919 females per 1000 males. Since ancient times, Bihar has attracted migrants and settlers including Bengalis, Turks from Central Asia, Persians, Afghans and Punjabi Hindu refugees during the Partition of British India in 1947. Bihar has a total literacy rate of 63.82% (75.7% for males and 55.1% for females).

The state is divided into 09 divisions and 38 districts, for administrative purposes. The various districts included in the divisions – Patna,Tirhut, Saran, Darbhanga, Kosi, Purnia, Bhagalpur, Munger and Magadh Division, are as listed below.

Division        Headquarters        Districts
Bhagalpur        Bhagalpur        Banka, Bhagalpur
Darbhanga        Darbhanga        Begusarai, Darbhanga, Madhubani, Samastipur
Kosi        Saharsa        Madhepura, Saharsa, Supaul
Magadh        Gaya        Arwal, Aurangabad, Gaya, Jehanabad, Nawada
Munger        Munger        Jamui, Khagaria, Munger, Lakhisarai, Sheikhpura
Patna        Patna        Bhojpur, Buxar, Kaimur, Patna, Rohtas, Nalanda
Purnia        Purnia        Araria, Katihar, Kishanganj, Purnia
Saran        Chapra        Gopalganj, Saran, Siwan
Tirhut        Muzaffarpur        East Champaran, Muzaffarpur, Sheohar, Sitamarhi,Vaishali, West Champaran

Religion in Bihar

Gautam Buddha attained Enlightenment at Bodh Gaya, a town located in the modern day district of Gaya in Bihar. Vardhamana Mahavira, the 24th and the last Tirthankara ofJainism, was born in Vaishali around sixth century BC.

A typical Hindu Brahmin household would begin the day with the blowing of a conch shell at dawn.

In rural Bihar, religion is the main component of popular culture. Shrines are located everywhere – even at the foot of trees, roadsides, etc., religious symbols or images of deities can be found in the most obscure or the most public places. From the dashboard of a dilapidated taxi to the plush office of a top executive, holy symbols or idols have their place.

There are many variations on the festival theme. While some are celebrated all over the state, others are observed only in certain areas. However Bihar is so diverse that different regions and religions have something to celebrate at some time or the other during the year. So festivals take place round the year. Many of these are officially recognized by the days on which they take place being proclaimed as government holidays.

Religion in Bihar
Religion Percent
Hinduism  
83%
Islam  
16%
Other  
1%

Tourism in Bihar

Bihar is one of the oldest inhabited places in the world, with a history spanning 3,000 years. The rich culture and heritage of Bihar is evident from the innumerable ancient monuments spread throughout the state. Bihar is visited by scores of tourists from all over the world, with around 6,000,000 (6 million) tourists visiting Bihar every year.

 

Read About ::-- Indian History , Indian Geography ,Indian Culture, India politics , Indian Freedom Struggle , India State , Indian Touris Destination , Indian World Heritage Site .

 

 
 

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