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         Slave Dynasty (1206-90 AD)

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Medieval India Main dynasties (550 AD –1526 AD) ::-- Slave Dynasty (1206–90) Khalji dynasty (1290–1320) Tughluk dynasty (1320–1414) Sayyid dynasty (1414–51) Lodi dynasty (1451–1526) mughal empie (1556-1857) Maratha Samrajya ( 1674–1820 )
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Capital Delhi
Language(s) Persian and Turkic
Religion Sunni Islam
Government Sultanate
Sultan
 - 1206–1210 Qutb-ud-din Aibak
 - 1286–1290 Muiz ud din Qaiqabad
History
 - Established 1206
 - Disestablished

 

Slave Dynasty or Ghulam Dynasty or Mamluk Sultanate (Delhi)

The Slave Dynasty or Mamluk Dynasty or Ghulam Dynasty (Urdu: سلسله غلامان, Hindi: ग़ुलाम ख़ानदान), was directed into India by Qutb-ud-din Aybak, a Turkic general of Central Asian birth. It was the first of five unrelated dynasties to rule India's Delhi Sultanate from 1206 to 1290. Aybak's tenure as a Ghorid administrator ranged between 1192 to 1206, a period during which he led invasions into the Gangetic heartland of India and established control over some of the new areas.

History

Mamluk, literally owned, was a soldier of slave origin who had converted to Islam. The phenomenon started in 9th century AD and gradually the Mamluks became a powerful military caste in various Muslim societies. Mamluks held political and military power most notably in Egypt, but also in the Levant, Iraq, and India.
In 1206, Muhammad of Ghor died. He had no child, so after his death, his sultanate was divided into many parts by his slaves (mamluk generals). Taj-ud-Din Yildoz became the ruler of Ghazni. Mohammad Bin Bakhtiyar Khilji got Bengal. Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha became the sultan of Multan. Qutub-ud-din-Aybak became the sultan of Delhi, and that was the beginning of the Slave dynasty.
Aybak rose to power when a Ghorid superior was assassinated. However, his reign as the Sultan of Delhi was short lived as he died in 1210 and his son Aram Shah rose to the throne, only to be assassinated by Iltutmish in 1211.
The Sultanate under Iltutmish established cordial diplomatic contact with the Abbasid Caliphate between 1228–29 and had managed to keep India unaffected by the invasions of Genghis Khan and his successors. Following the death of Iltutmish in 1236 a series of weak rulers remained in power and a number of the noblemen gained autonomy over the provinces of the Sultanate. Power shifted hands from Rukn ud din Firuz to Razia Sultana until Ghiyas ud din Balban rose to the throne and successfully repelled both external and internal threats to the Sultanate. The Khalji dynasty came into being when Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji overthrew the last of the Slave dynasty rulers, Muiz ud din Qaiqabad, the grandson of Balban, and assumed the throne at Delhi.

Architecture

The architectural legacy of the dynasty includes the Qutb Minar, Mehrauli by Qutb-ud-din Aybak, Sultan Ghari near Vasant Kunj, the first Islamic Mausoleum (tomb) built in 1231 A.D. for Prince Nasir ud din Mahmud, eldest son of Iltumish, and Balban's tomb, also in Mehrauli Archaeological Park.

 

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