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Bosnia Country

Bosnia Explanation ::-- Bosnia History || Bosnia Geography ||Bosnia Administration || Bosnia Heritage Site||


Bosnia is a eponomous region of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It lies mainly in the Dinaric Alps, ranging to the southern borders of the Pannonian plain, with the rivers Sava and Drina marking its northern and eastern borders. The other eponomous region, the southern, other half of the country is Herzegovina. Bosnia is in informal use for the whole country.

Republic of Bosnia

The area of Bosnia comprises approximately 41,000 km², and makes up about 80% of the territory of the present-day state of Bosnia and Herzegovina. There are no true borders between the regions in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and, unofficially, Herzegovina is south of the mountain Ivan planina.


The two regions have formed a geopolitical entity since medieval times, and the name "Bosnia" commonly occurs in historical and geopolitical senses as generally referring to both regions (Bosnia and Herzegovina). The official use of the name including both regions started only in the late period of Ottoman-rule.


The Bosnian kingdom included most of the territory of today's Bosnia and of what would later become known as Herzegovina. After losing its independence to the Ottoman Empire in 1463, Bosnia (including Herzegovina) was a state (sanjak) within the empire for four centuries. The area acquired the name of "Bosnia and Herzegovina" in 1853 as a result of a twist in political events.

The Austro-Hungarian Empire occupied it in 1878 and formally annexed it in 1908, thwarting the Serbian efforts to create a Greater Serbia. Serb responses to the annexation included numerous plots, one of which led to the Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, which in turn caused the First World War. After the war, Bosnia became a part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. During the Second World War, from 1941 to 1945, Bosnia was a part of the fascist puppet Independent State of Croatia, but large areas of Bosnia were controlled by Partisan or Chetniks resistance forces. After the war Bosnia and Herzegovina became a constituent federal republic of socialist Yugoslavia.


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During the breakup of Yugoslavia, in 1992 Bosnia and Herzegovina proclaimed independence. Many Bosnian Serbs opposed this and proclaimed their own Republika Srpska on the territories they controlled. A bloody war ensued and ended three years later with the Dayton Agreement, establishing Bosnia and Herzegovina as composed of two constituent territorial 'entities' -- the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska, and three constituent peoples -- Bosniaks, Serbs, and Croats.




Area: 51,200 sq km (19,970 sq mi) Population: 3.8m (2009, UN estimate) Capital City: Sarajevo Peoples: Bosniak (Muslim), Croat, Serb, Others Languages: Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian Religions: Islam (Bosniaks), Roman Catholicism (Croats) and Orthodox (Serbs) Currency: KM, Convertible Mark, pegged to the Euro

Main political structures: State-level Government/Parliament, two Entity-level Governments/Parliaments – see below Major political parties:  NB elections took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina on 3 October 2010 and governments have not yet been formed at the state and Federation entity level, where coalition negotiations are ongoing.Details in this section have been updated following the appointment of the Presidency and RS government only.There will be further updates once other governments have been formed and key appointments have been made. State-level Government: Coalition consists of Party for Democratic Action (SDA) and Party for BiH (SBiH); Party of Independent Social Democrats (SNSD) and Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina (HDZ BiH) and Croatian Democratic Union 1990 (HDZ-1990) Opposition: Social Democratic Party (SDP), Party of Democratic Progress (PDP) and Serbian Democratic Party (SDS)


Federation of BiH Government: Party for Democratic Action (SDA), Party for BiH (SBiH), Croatian Democratic Union of BiH (HDZ-BiH), Croatian Democratic Union of BiH-1990 (HDZ-1990), Party of Independent Social Democrats (SNSD) Republika Srpska Government: (as per election 2010 results)Coalition consists of Party of Independent Social Democrats (SNSD), Socialist Party of RS (SPRS), Democratic People’s Union (DNS), and Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina (HDZ BiH) Heads of State: (as per election 2010 results) Tripartite Presidency (with rotating chair) consisting of Bakir Izetbegovic (Bosniak – SBiH,), Zeljko Komsic (Bosnian Croat – SDP), and Nebojsa Radmanovic (Bosnian Serb – SNSD, current chair) Foreign Minister: Sven Alkalaj (Jewish – SBiH) Entity-level Presidents: Federation of BiH: Mr Mustafa Mujezinovic (Bosniak - SDA); Republika Srpska: (as per election 2010 results) Aleksandar Dzombic (Bosnian Serb – SNSD) Republika Srpska: (as per election 2010 results) Milorad Dodik (Bosnian Serb – SNSD) Entity-level Prime Ministers: Federation of BiH: Mr Mustafa Mujezinovic (Bosniak - SDA); Republika Srpska: Milorad Dodik (Bosnian Serb – SNSD) Membership of International Institutions: United Nations (UN), International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, Organisation for Co-operation and Security in Europe (OSCE), Council of Europe, Central European Trade Agreement (CEFTA), Regional Cooperation Council

BiH is a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council for the 2010-2011 term