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Lighthouse of Alexandria


Wonders of the World ::--Ancient 7 Wonder||Medieval 7 Wonder||Modern 7 Wonder||Natural 7 Wonder||Wonder of Underwater||Wonder of Industrial||Wonder didn't know Existed||Human with Diffrent||20 Strange Place's||


Seven Wonders of the Ancient World ::-- 1.Great Pyramid of Giza|| 2.Hanging Gardens of Babylon|| 3.Statue of Zeus at Olympia|| 4.Temple of Artemis at Ephesus|| 5.Mausoleum of Maussollos at Halicarnassus|| 6.Colossus of Rhodes|| 7.Lighthouse of Alexandria||


Lighthouse of Alexandria

The Lighthouse of Alexandria, also known as the Pharos of Alexandria was a tower built between 280 and 247 BC on the island of Pharos at Alexandria, Egypt. Its purpose was to guide sailors into the harbour at night time.With a height variously estimated at somewhere in-between 393 and 450 ft (120 and 140 m), it was for many centuries among the tallest man made structures on Earth. It was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

The Origin of the name 'Lighthouse'
The Lighthouse of Alexandria was originally referred to as the Pharos after the name of the former island where it finally stood. Pharos gave its name to the building and is used as a word for ‘lighthouse’ in several languages (the word phare in French and faro in Italian and Spanish).


Why the Lighthouse of Alexandria was built at Pharos 
The Lighthouse of Alexandria was constructed in the ancient city which was founded by Alexander the Great and it achieved growth and prosperity for almost 1000 years. The city was described by the writer Strabo as ‘the greatest emporium in the inhabited world’. Within fifty years of the founding of the city it became the major commercial centre of the ancient Mediterranean and the richest city of antiquity. The entrance to Alexandria was one of the most important ports of the Mediterranean. Trading ships flocked to the city but because of dangerous sailing conditions and the flat coastline, the construction of a lighthouse became necessary.

Construction and destruction

The lighthouse was completed in the 3rd century BC. After Alexander the Great died of a fever at age 32, Ptolemy Soter announced himself king in 305 BC, and commissioned its construction shortly thereafter. The building was finished during his son Ptolemy Philadelphos's reign.
Strabo reported that Sostratus had a dedication inscribed in metal letters to the "Saviour Gods". Later Pliny the Elder wrote that Sostratus was the architect, which is disputed. In the second century AD the satirist Lucian wrote that Sostratus inscribed his name under plaster bearing the name of Ptolemy. This was so that when the plaster with Ptolemy's name fell off, that Sostratus's name would be visible in the stone.
The fullest description of the lighthouse comes from the Arab traveller Abou Haggag Youssef Ibn el-Andaloussi, who visited the structure in 1165 AD. His description runs:



The Pharos rises at the end of the island. The building is square, about 8.5 metres (28 ft) each side. The sea surrounds the Pharos except on the east and south sides. This platform measures, along its sides, from the tip, down to the foot of the Pharos walls, 6.5 metres (21 ft) in height. However, on the sea side, it is larger because of the construction and is steeply inclined like the side of a mountain. As the height of the platform increases towards the walls of the Pharos its width narrows until it arrives at the measurements above. ... The doorway to the Pharos is high up. A ramp about 183 metres (600 ft) long used to lead up to it. This ramp rests on a series of curved arches; my companion got beneath one of the arches and stretched out his arms but he was not able to reach the sides. There are 16 of these arches, each gradually getting higher until the doorway is reached, the last one being especially high.


lighthouse

Constructed from large blocks of light-coloured stone, the tower was made up of three stages: a lower square section with a central core, a middle octagonal section, and, at the top, a circular section. At its apex was positioned a mirror which reflected sunlight during the day; a fire was lit at night. Extant Roman coins struck by the Alexandrian mint show that a statue of a triton was positioned on each of the building's four corners. A statue of Poseidon stood atop the tower during the Roman period. The Pharos' masonry blocks were interlocked, sealed together using molten lead, to withstand the pounding of the waves.
There are ancient claims that light from the lighthouse could be seen from up to 29 miles (47 km) away.
After the Muslims took over all of Egypt, the top of the Pharos supposedly became a mosque, as the beacon was no longer in working order. The Pharos remained this way until its destruction in the 14th century.
The lighthouse was badly damaged in the earthquake of 956, then again in 1303 and 1323. The two earthquakes in 1303 and 1323 damaged the lighthouse to the extent that the Arab traveler Ibn Battuta reported no longer being able to enter the ruin. Even the stubby remnant disappeared in 1480, when the then-Sultan of Egypt, Qaitbay, built a mediæval fort on the former location of the building using some of the fallen stone.

 

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