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Yenisei River


Biggest River on Earth ::--|| 1.Nile River|| 2.Amazon River|| 3.Yangtze River|| 4.Missisipi River|| 5.Yenisei River|| 6.Yellow River|| 7.Ob River|| 8.Parana River|| 9.Congo River|| 10.Amur River|| 11.Lena River|| 12.Mekong River|| 13.Mackenzie River|| 14.Niger River|| 15.Murray/Darling River|| 16.Tocantins River|| 17.Volga River|| 18.Purus River|| 19.Madeira River|| 20.Sao Francisco River||List of River's.||


Yenisei River

Yenisei also written as Yenisey, is the largest river system flowing to the Arctic Ocean. It is the central of the three great Siberian rivers that flow into the Arctic Ocean (the other two being the Ob River and the Lena River). Rising in Mongolia, it follows a northerly course to the Yenisei Gulf in the Kara Sea, draining a large part of central Siberia, the longest stream following the Yenisei-Angara-Selenga-Ider river system.
The upper reaches, subject to rapids and flooding, pass through sparsely populated areas. The middle section is controlled by a series of massive hydroelectric dams fuelling significant Russian primary industry. Partly built by gulag labor in Soviet times, industrial contamination remains a serious problem in an area hard to police. Moving on through sparsely-populated taiga, the Yenisei swells with numerous tributaries and finally reaches the Kara Sea in desolate tundra where it is icebound for more than half the year.
The maximum depth of the Yenisei River is 80 feet and the average depth is 45 feet . The depth of river outflow is 106 feet and inflow is 101 feet .

The Yenisei River is a 4,129-km-long waterway often considered the boundary between eastern and western Siberia; it is the fourth-longest river in Asia and the second-longest in Russia. Including its Angara, Selenga, and Ider tributaries, the Yenisei drains an area of 2,598,897 sq km (1,003,474 sq mi).

The Yenisei proper is formed by the confluence of the Bolshoi, or Great, and the Maly, or Little, Yenisei, at Kyzyl in the Tannu Ola Mountains. It flows generally north to the Kara Sea of the Arctic Ocean. The river provides hydroelectric power in its upper course. Abundant mineral deposits have been found along the east bank of the river's middle course, and petroleum is extracted near Dudinka. Igarka, on the river, is one of the largest lumber-exporting cities in Russia. The Yenisei is navigable during the summer months.

 

The Yenisei area was settled by Cossacks and fur traders during the early 17th century; exploration of the river began during the 18th century and continued into the 19th and 20th centuries. The delta first was visited by Adolf Erik Nordenskjold in 1875.

 

Yenisey River, also spelled Yenisei or Enisei, Evenk Ioanesi (“Great River”), river of central Russia, one of the longest rivers in Asia.

 

The world’s sixth largest river in terms of discharge, the Yenisey runs from south to north across the great expanse of central Siberia. It traverses a vast region of strikingly varied landscapes where ancient peoples and customs as well as an enormous economic infrastructure are found.

Yenisei River (Енисей)
Bii-Hem and Ka-Hem near Kyzyl
Countries Mongolia, Russia
Regions
Tyva, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Khakassia,Irkutsk Oblast, Buryatia,Zabaykalsky Krai
Tributaries
 - right Angara, Lower Tunguska,Stony Tunguska River
Cities

Kyzyl, Shagonar, Sayanogorsk,Abakan, 

Divnogorsk, Krasnoyarsk,Yeniseysk, 

Lesosibirsk, Igarka,Dudinka

Source Mungaragiyn-Gol
 - location ridge Dod-Taygasyn-Noor, Mongolia
 - elevation 3,351 m (10,994 ft)
 - length 748 km (465 mi)
 - coordinates 50°43′46″N 98°39′49″E
Mouth Yenisei Gulf
 - location Kara Sea, Arctic ocean, Russia
Length 5,539 km (3,442 mi)
Basin 2,580,000 km2 (996,144 sq mi)
Discharge for Yenisei Gulf
 - average 19,600 m3/s (692,167 cu ft/s)
 - max 190,000 m3/s (6,709,787 cu ft/s)
 - min 2,700 m3/s (95,350 cu ft/s)
yenesie river map
The Yenisei basin, including Lake Baikal


The river begins at the city of Kyzyl in the republic of Tyva (Tuva), Russia, at the confluence of its headstreams—the Great (Bolshoy) Yenisey, or By-Khem, which rises on the Eastern Sayan Mountains of Tyva, and the Little (Maly) Yenisey, or Ka-Khem, which rises in the Darhadïn Bowl of Mongolia. From the confluence the Yenisey River runs for 2,167 miles (3,487 km), mainly along the border between eastern and western Siberia, before emptying into the icy Kara Sea. If the Great Yenisey is considered the source, then the river is 2,540 miles (4,090 km) long. The headwaters of the Selenga (Selenge) River, which rise in western Mongolia and flow through Lake Baikal (the world’s deepest freshwater lake) into the Angara tributary of the Yenisey, may, however, be considered the river’s ultimate source. With the inclusion of the Selenga, the Yenisey is 3,442 miles (5,539 km) long and drains a basin that, at 996,000 square miles (2,580,000 square km), is the seventh largest in the world. The system within Siberia’s boundaries comprises some 20,000 tributary or subtributary streams, with an aggregate length of approximately 550,000 miles (885,000 km). All of the major tributaries of the Yenisey flow from the Central Siberian Plateau to its east, a region constituting 80 percent of the basin area.



Lake Baikal

The world’s largest (by volume) freshwater lake is situated within the Yenisey watershed.  This ancient lake contains 1/5 of the world’s fresh water supply and is 1637 metres deep at its greatest depth. The geology in this region is quite active, and the lake itself is the result of a rift created between two tectonic plates moving apart.  Violent summer storms frequently occur on this lake due to the temperature variation between land and water.  The lake is fringed with jagged snow-peaked mountains and sandy beaches nestled between precipice-adorned bays.

Many streams and rivers flow into Lake Baikal including the Selenga River which drains southern Siberia and northern Mongolia.  The Selenga is the flow included when measuring the Yenisey River’s full length.

Lake Baikal is drained by the Angara River.  Many guidebooks to the region incorrectly state it is noteworthy that only one river exits Baikal despite the hundreds of inflows.  This is a geographical standard, and lakes are almost never drained by more than one river.

Navigation

The lower waters of the Yenisey are navigable by river freighters and barges. The Angara River is navigable by medium-sized craft; however there are a few sets of small rapids (with deep channels in the middle). The Angara also has three large hydro-electric reservoirs (including the Bratsk dam which holds back the world’s largest man-made lake), and boats need to be portaged around the dams.
The waters of the upper Ider River are spirited, alternating from flat fast-flowing water to class II-IV rapids. The authorities do not allow boaters to navigate the river over the Russian/Mongolian border. It is necessary to disembark on one side, take the train over the border (walking isn’t allowed either), clear customs, and re-enter on the other side of the fence.

The Yenisey River flows through regions which are relatively stable politically, and danger from humans is not high. Inhabitants along the river are generally friendly and welcoming. The high elevation of the upper reaches and polar latitudes of the lower sections ensure cold winters along the river’s length. The river is free of ice from about May to early October.

 

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