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Niger River


Biggest River on Earth ::--|| 1.Nile River|| 2.Amazon River|| 3.Yangtze River|| 4.Missisipi River|| 5.Yenisei River|| 6.Yellow River|| 7.Ob River|| 8.Parana River|| 9.Congo River|| 10.Amur River|| 11.Lena River|| 12.Mekong River|| 13.Mackenzie River|| 14.Niger River|| 15.Murray/Darling River|| 16.Tocantins River|| 17.Volga River|| 18.Purus River|| 19.Madeira River|| 20.Sao Francisco River||List of River's.||


niger river
The Niger at Koulikoro, Mali.
Name origin: Unknown. Likely From Berber for River gher
Countries
Guinea, Mali, Niger, Benin, Nigeria
Tributaries
- left
Sokoto River, Kaduna River, Benue River
- right
Bani River
Cities
Tembakounda, Bamako, Timbuktu, Niamey,Lokoja, Onitsha
Mouth
- location
Gulf of Guinea, Nigeria
Length
4,180 km (2,597 mi)
Basin
2,117,700 km2 (817,649 sq mi)
Discharge
for Niger Delta
- average
5,589 m3/s (197,374 cu ft/s)
- max
27,600 m3/s (974,685 cu ft/s)
- min
500 m3/s (17,657 cu ft/s)
niger river map
Map of the Niger River, and Niger River Basin shown in green

The Niger River is the principal river of western Africa, extending about 4,180 km (2,600 mi). Its drainage basin is 2,117,700 km2 (817,600 sq mi) in area. Its source is in the Guinea Highlands in southeastern Guinea. It runs in a crescent through Mali, Niger, on the border with Benin and then through Nigeria, discharging through a massive delta, known as the Niger Delta or the Oil Rivers, into the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean. The Niger is the third-longest river in Africa, exceeded only by the Nile and the Congo River (also known as the Zaïre River). Its main tributary is the Benue River.



The Niger is the world's 14th-longest river at 2,590 miles. It is the largest river in western Africa.

The river begins in Guinea and runs east through Benin, Guinea, Mali, Niger, and Nigeria. The source is an almost 90-degree turn south, to the Gulf of Guinea.One of the main sources of income from the river is oil. The country of Niger is, in fact, a major oil producer.Irrigation canals spread out from the river, bringing precious water to a sometimes starving delta. Millet and sorghum are grown. Fish in the river also form sources of food for people who live nearby. Dams are also present on the Niger. One of the largest is the Kainji Dam, at New Bussa. This dam was built both to protect against flooding and for hydroelectric power.

The unusual geography of the river has made for some exciting times for the middle of the flow. Called the Niger Bend, the middle of the river was a focal point for trade across the western Sahara and a major center of the ancient African kingdom of Mali.Since the early days of civilization in the region, the river has been a source of power also in the constant wars that have battered the region. Struggles continue today over where to build dams and tame rapids.



The Niger River, with a total length of about 4100 km, is the third-longest river in Africa, after the Nile and the Congo/Zaire Rivers, and the longest and largest river in West Africa. The Niger River basin, located in western Africa, covers 7.5% of the continent and spreads over ten countries.

Length

2,590 miles

Source(s)

Guinea

Mouth

Gulf of Guinea, Atlantic Ocean

Countries Flows Through

Benin, Guinea, Mali, Niger, and Nigeria

Cities Flows By/Through

Bamako, Tombouctou, Mali; Niamey, Niger

The upper Niger River system

The source of the Niger River farthest away from the mouth is in the mountains of Guinea near the border with Sierra Leone. Together with several tributaries it traverses the interior plateau of Guinea flowing north-east towards the border with Mali. Just after the border it is joined by another tributary which also originates in Guinea. The total annual flow entering Mali from Guinea is estimated at 40 km3.

The river then proceeds north-east towards the inner delta in Mali, where it is joined at Mopti by an important tributary, the Bani River, which is about 1100 km long and has its sources in Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso.

The middle Niger River system

From the inner delta the river continues to flow north-eastwards before turning south-east to form a great bend, the Niger Loop. After meandering through arid areas it enters Niger. In the Niger Loop another 4 hen /year of water disappear between Dire and Ansongo. Like in the inner delta, these losses are mainly caused by evaporation, but they are much less because of the smaller area inundated during and after the floods. 'Losses' by infiltration are limited.

Within Niger the river receives water from six tributaries originating in Burkina Faso (Gouroual, Dargol, Sirba, Gouroubi, Diamangou, Tapoa). The total annual discharge leaving Burkina Faso is estimated at about 1.4 km3.

Further downstream the river becomes the border between Niger and Benin, from where three main tributaries enter the river (Mekrou, Alibori, Sota) with a total annual discharge of about 3 km3.At Gaya in Niger or Malanville in Benin, just upstream of the border with Nigeria, the average annual discharge has been estimated at about 36 km3 , but only about 18 km was measured in 1986 .

The lower Niger River system

Leaving the border between Niger and Benin the river enters Nigeria, where it is joined by numerous tributaries. The most important tributary of the Niger is the Benue which merges with the river at Lokoja in Nigeria. The Benue itself rises in Chad although there are almost no surface water resources in its uppermost part. In Cameroon it receives water from several tributaries. The slope in Cameroon is considerable and the discharge there has important seasonal variations. The quantity of water entering Nigeria was estimated at 25 km3/year before the 1980s and at 13.5 km3/year during the 1980s. In Nigeria itself the Benue is joined by several tributaries, of which the ones at the left side originate mainly in Cameroon. The Benue reaches its flood level in September. It begins to fall in October and falls rapidly in November, continuing slowly over the next three months to reach its lowest level in March and April.

 

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