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Mount Everest


Eight Thousander Mountain on Earth ::-- 1.Mount Everest|| 2.K2 Mountain|| 3.Kangchenjunga|| 4.Lhotse Mountain|| 5.Makalu Mountain|| 6.Cho Oyu Mountain|| 7.Dhaulagiri Mountain|| 8.Manaslu Mountain|| 9.Nanga Parbat Mountain|| 10.Annapurna Mountain||11.Gasherbrum||12.Broad Peak||13.Gasherbrum Mountain||14.Shishapangma Mountain||

Seven Summits Continent wise on Earth ::--||Aconcagua (S.America)||Carstensz(Oceana)||Elbrus (Europe)||M.Evrest (Asia)||Kilimanjaro (Africa)||Mskinley (N.America)||Vinson (Antarktica)||


Mount Everest

Mount Everest ("Holy Mother") is the world's highest mountain, with a peak at 8,848 metres (29,029 ft) above sea level. It is located in the Mahalangur section of the Himalayas. The international boundary runs across the precise summit point. Its massif includes neighboring peaks Lhotse (8516 m), Nuptse (7855 m) and Changtse (7580 m).
In 1856, the Great Trigonometric Survey of British India established the first published height of Everest, then known as Peak XV, at 29,002 ft (8,840 m). In 1865, Everest was given its official English name by the Royal Geographical Society upon a recommendation by Andrew Waugh, the British Surveyor General of India. Waugh named the mountain after his predecessor in the post, Sir George Everest. Although Tibetans had called Everest "Chomolungma" for centuries, Waugh was unaware of this because Nepal and Tibet were closed to foreigners.
The highest mountain in the world attracts many well-experienced mountaineers as well as novice climbers willing to hire professional guides. While not posing substantial technical climbing challenges on the standard route, Everest presents dangers such as altitude sickness, weather and wind.



EVEREST FACTS
Age of Everest:
Everest was formed about 60 million years ago
Elevation:
29,035 (8850m)-found to be 6' higher in 1999
Name in Nepal:
Sagarmatha (means: goddess of the sky)
In Tibet:
Chomolungma: (means: mother goddess of the universe)
Named after:
Sir George Everest in 1865 ,the British surveyor-general of India. Once known as Peak 15
Location:
Latitude 27° 59' N.....Longitude 86° 56' E It's summit ridge seperates Nepal and Tibet
First Ascent:
May 29,1953 by Sir Edmund Hillary, NZ and Tenzing Norgay, NP, via the South Col Route
First Solo Ascent:
Aug. 20,1980, Reinhold Messner, IT, via the NE Ridge to North Face
First winter Ascent:
Feb. 17,1980 -L.Cichy and K. Wielicki, POL
First Ascent by an American:
May 1,1963, James Whittaker, via the South-Col
Mt. Everest rises a few milimeters each year due to geological forces
Everest Name:
Sir George Everest was the first person to record the height and location of Mt. Everest, this is where Mt."Everest" got its name from(In american language)
First Ascent by a Woman:
May 16,1975, Junko Tabei, JAP, via the South-Col
First Ascent by an American Woman:
Sep.29,1988, Stacey Allison, Portland, OR via the South-East Ridge
First Oxygenless Ascent:
May 8, 1978- Reinhold Messner, IT, and Peter Habeler, AUT, via the South-East Ridge
First woman to reach the summit of Mount Everest from both north & south sides:
Cathy O'Dowd (S.A.) South May 25,1996/North '99
Fastest Ascent from South:
Babu Chhiri Sherpa 34, NP-16 hours and 56 minutes (5-21-2000)
Fastest Ascent (north side):
Hans Kammerlander (IT) May,24,1996, via the standard North Col Ridge Route, 16 hours 45 minutes from base camp
Youngest person:
Temba Tsheri (NP) 15 on May,22,2001
Oldest Person:
Sherman Bull May,25,2001 -64 yrs
First Legally Blind Person:
Erik Weihenmeyer May,25,2001
Most Ascents:
Eleven, 24th May 2000 Appa Sherpa became the first person to climb Everest 11 times-Ten, Ang Rita Sherpa, Babu Chiri Sherpa all ascents were oxygen-less.
Best and Worst Years on Everest:
1993, 129 summitted and eight died (a ratio of 16:1); in 1996, 98 summitted and 15 died (a ratio of 6½:1)
Highest cause cause of death:
Avalanches-about a (2:1) ratio over falls
Country with most deaths on mountain:
Nepal-46
Most dangerous area on mountain:
Khumbu Ice Fall-19 deaths
First ski descent:
Davo Karnicar (Slovenia) 10-7-2000
Last year without ascent:
1974
Last year without ascent:
1977
Corpses remaining on Everest:
about 120
Longest stay on top:
Babu Chiri Sherpa stayed at the summit full 21 hours and a half
Largest team:
In 1975, China tackled Everest with a 410-member team.
Fastest descent:
In 1988, Jean-Marc Boivin of France descended from the top in just 11 minutes, paragliding.
Only climber to climb all 4 sides of Everest:
Kushang Sherpa, now an instructor with Himlayan Mountaineering Institute
First person to hike from sea level to summit, no oxygen.:
11th May 1990,Tim Macartney-Snape, Australian
Largest number to reach the top in one day:
40, on May 10, 1993
First person to summit Everest twice:
Nawang Gombu-Nepal(once with Whitaker in '63,and again two years later in '65)Gombu now works for the Himalayan mountaineering institute
The oldest woman to summit
Anna Czerwinska May 22, 2000.


Ascents

Early expeditions

In 1885, Clinton Thomas Dent, president of the Alpine Club, suggested that climbing Mount Everest was possible in his book Above the Snow Line.
The northern approach to the mountain was discovered by George Mallory on the first expedition in 1921. It was an exploratory expedition not equipped for a serious attempt to climb the mountain. With Mallory leading (and thus becoming the first European to set foot on Everest's flanks) they climbed the North Col 7,007 metres (22,989 ft). From there, Mallory espied a route to the top, but the party was unprepared for the great task of climbing any further and descended.
The British returned for a 1922 expedition. George Finch ("The other George") climbed using oxygen for the first time. He ascended at a remarkable speed—950 feet (290 m) per hour, and reached an altitude of 8,320 m (27,300 ft), the first time a human climbed higher than 8,000m. This feat was entirely lost on the British climbing establishment—except for its "unsporting" nature. Mallory and Col. Felix Norton made a second unsuccessful attempt. Mallory was faulted for leading a group down from the North Col which got caught in an avalanche. Mallory was pulled down too, but seven native porters were killed.
The next Expedition was in 1924. The initial attempt by Mallory and Bruce was aborted when weather conditions precluded the establishment of Camp VI. The next attempt was that of Norton and Somervell, who climbed without oxygen and in perfect weather, traversing the North Face into the Great Couloir. Norton managed to reach 8,558 metres (28,077 ft), though he ascended only 100 feet (30 m) or so in the last hour. Mallory rustled up oxygen equipment for a last-ditch effort. He chose young Andrew Irvine as his partner.
On 8 June 1924, George Mallory and Andrew Irvine made an attempt on the summit via the North Col/North Ridge/Northeast Ridge route from which they never returned. On 1 May 1999, the Mallory and Irvine Research Expedition found Mallory's body on the North Face in a snow basin below and to the west of the traditional site of Camp VI. Controversy has raged in the mountaineering community whether one or both of them reached the summit 29 years before the confirmed ascent (and of course, safe descent) of Everest by Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay in 1953.
In 1933, Lady Houston, a British millionairess, funded the Houston Everest Flight of 1933, which saw a formation of aircraft led by the Marquess of Clydesdale fly over the summit in an effort to deploy the British Union Flag at the top.
Early expeditions—such as Bruce's in the 1920s and Hugh Ruttledge's two unsuccessful attempts in 1933 and 1936—tried to make an ascent of the mountain from Tibet, via the north face. Access was closed from the north to western expeditions in 1950, after the Chinese asserted control over Tibet. In 1950, Bill Tilman and a small party which included Charles Houston, Oscar Houston and Betsy Cowles undertook an exploratory expedition to Everest through Nepal along the route which has now become the standard approach to Everest from the south.
The Swiss expedition of 1952, led by Edouard Wyss-Dunant, was granted permission to attempt a climb from Nepal. The expedition established a route through the Khumbu ice fall and ascended to the South Col at an elevation of 7,986 metres (26,201 ft). No attempt at an ascent of Everest was ever under consideration in this case. Raymond Lambert and Sherpa Tenzing Norgay were able to reach a height of about 8,595 metres (28,199 ft) on the southeast ridge, setting a new climbing altitude record. Tenzing's experience was useful when he was hired to be part of the British expedition in 1953.


mount everest

First successful ascent by Tenzing and Hillary

In 1953, a ninth British expedition, led by John Hunt, returned to Nepal. Hunt selected two climbing pairs to attempt to reach the summit. The first pair (Tom Bourdillon and Charles Evans) came within 100 m (300 feet) of the summit on 26 May 1953, but turned back after running into oxygen problems. As planned, their work in route finding and breaking trail and their caches of extra oxygen were of great aid to the following pair. Two days later, the expedition made its second and final assault on the summit with its second climbing pair, the New Zealander Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay, a Nepali sherpa climber. They reached the summit at 11:30 a.m. local time on 29 May 1953 via the South Col Route. At the time, both acknowledged it as a team effort by the whole expedition, but Tenzing revealed a few years later that Hillary had put his foot on the summit first. They paused at the summit to take photographs and buried a few sweets and a small cross in the snow before descending.
News of the expedition's success reached London on the morning of Queen Elizabeth II's coronation, 2 June. Returning to Kathmandu a few days later, Hunt (a Briton) and Hillary (a New Zealander) discovered that they had been promptly knighted in the Order of the British Empire, a KBE, for the ascent. Tenzing (a subject of the King of Nepal) was granted the George Medal by the UK. Hunt was ultimately made a life peer in Britain, while Hillary became a founding member of the Order of New Zealand. Hillary and Tenzing are also nationally recognized in Nepal, where annual ceremonies in schools and offices celebrate their accomplishment.

First ascents without supplemental oxygen and first solo ascent

On 8 May 1978, Reinhold Messner (Italy) and Peter Habeler (Austria) made the first ascent without supplemental oxygen, using the southeast ridge route. On 20 August 1980, Messner reached the summit of the mountain solo for the first time, without supplementary oxygen or support, on the more difficult Northwest route via the North Col to the North Face and the Great Couloir. He climbed for three days entirely alone from his base camp at 6,500 metres (21,300 ft).

First winter ascent

In 1980, a team from Poland led by Andrzej Zawada, Leszek Cichy, and Krzysztof Wielicki became the first to reach the summit during the winter season.

First ascent by a woman

The first woman to get to the top was Junko Tabei, in 1975, after being rescued from an avalanche by her sherpa.

First ascent from sea level

In 1990 Australian Tim Macartney-Snape became the first person to climb from sea level to the summit.

1996 disaster

During the 1996 season, 16 people died while climbing on Mount Everest, the highest number of fatalities in a single year in the mountain's history. Eight of them died on 11 May alone. The disaster gained wide publicity and raised questions about the commercialization of climbing Mount Everest.
Journalist Jon Krakauer, on assignment from Outside magazine, was in one of the affected parties, and afterwards published the bestseller Into Thin Air, which related his experience. Anatoli Boukreev, a guide who felt impugned by Krakauer's book, co-authored a rebuttal book called The Climb. The dispute sparked a debate within the climbing community. In May 2004, Kent Moore, a physicist, and John L. Semple, a surgeon, both researchers from the University of Toronto, told New Scientist magazine that an analysis of weather conditions on 11 May suggested that freak weather caused oxygen levels to plunge approximately 14%.
The storm's impact on climbers on the North Ridge of Mount Everest, where several climbers also died, was detailed in a first-hand account by British filmmaker and writer Matt Dickinson in his book The Other Side of Everest. 16-year-old Mark Pfetzer was on the climb and wrote about it in his account, Within Reach: My Everest Story.

Various records

The youngest person to climb Mount Everest was 13-year-old Jordan Romero in May 2010 from the Tibetan side. His ascent, as part of an apparent "race" to bring younger and younger children to the mountain (shortly after Romero's ascent, Pemba Dorjie Sherpa announced plans to bring his 9 year old son to the summit), triggered a wave of criticism that prompted Chinese authorities to establish age limits on Mt Everest. At the present time, China no longer grants permits to prospective climbers under 18 or over 60. Nepal sets the minimum age at 16 but has no maximum age.
Apa Sherpa holds the record for reaching the summit more times than any other person (21 times as of May 2011).
The fastest ascent via the northeast ridge was accomplished in 2007 by Austrian climber Christian Stangl, who took 16h 42min for the 10 km distance from Camp III (Advanced Base Camp) to the summit, just barely beating Italian Hans Kammerlander's record of 17 hours, accomplished in 1996. Both men climbed alone and without supplementary oxygen. The fastest oxygen-supported ascent over the southeast ridge was Nepalese Pemba Dorjie Sherpa's 2004 climb, taking 8h 10min for the 17-km route from Base Camp to the summit. The fastest ascent without supplementary oxygen via the southeast ridge was accomplished by French Marc Batard, who reached the summit in 22h 30min in 1988.
The first descent by paraglider was by Jean-Marc Boivin on 26 September 1988 and the first descent by ski was in 2000 by Davo Karnicar.
The oldest climber to reach Mount Everest's summit is 76-year-old Min Bahadur Sherchan, on 25 May 2008 from the Nepalese side. Sherchan beat the previous record set in 2007 by 71-year-old Katsusuke Yanagisawa.The oldest climber to reach the summit of Mount Everest from both sides (Nepal and Tibet) of the mountain is 60-year-old Julio Bird, a Puerto Rican cardiologist who reached the summit of Mount Everest from the north side on 17 May 2010.
The first self-propelled ascent of Mount Everest, the highest point on the earth's surface, starting from the lowest point on the earth's surface – the Dead Sea – was by Phil and Pauline Sanderson in 2006.

 

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