JAI SHREE RAM ....
Welcome Guest
Login /Register
Universe On Web
Top Story : UniverseOnWeb.com .....
 
 
Australlia Continent
 
Search Engine

 

New Caledonia (France)


Australlia Continent ::--australlia(continent) facts||australlia history||australlia geography||australlia Heritage site||


New Caledonia

New Caledonia (French: Nouvelle-Calédonie) is a special collectivity of France located in the southwest Pacific Ocean, 1,500 kilometres (930 mi) east of Australia and about 20,000 kilometres (12,000 mi) from Metropolitan France. The archipelago, part of the Melanesia subregion, includes the main island of Grande Terre, the Loyalty Islands, the Belep archipelago, the Isle of Pines and a few remote islets. The Chesterfield Islands in the Coral Sea are also part of New Caledonia. Locals refer to Grand Terre as "Le Caillou", the rock.
New Caledonia has a land area of 18,576 square kilometres (7,172 sq mi). The population (2011 estimate) is 256,275. The capital and the only sizeable city of the territory is Nouméa.



History New Caledonia

The earliest traces of human presence in New Caledonia date back to the Lapita period. The Lapita were highly skilled navigators and agriculturists with influence over a large area of the Pacific.
Europeans first sighted New Caledonia on September 4, 1774, during the second voyage of Captain James Cook. He named the territory New Caledonia, as the north-east of the island reminded him of Scotland. The west coast of Grande Terre was approached by Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse in 1788, shortly before his disappearance, and the Loyalty Islands were first visited in 1796. From then until 1840, only a few sporadic contacts with the archipelago were recorded. Contacts became more frequent after 1840, because of the interest in sandalwood from New Caledonia.
As trade in sandalwood declined, it was replaced by a new form of trade, "Blackbirding", a euphemism for enslaving people from New Caledonia, the Loyalty Islands, New Hebrides, New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands to work in sugar cane plantations in Fiji and Queensland. The trade ceased at the start of the 20th century. The victims of this trade were called Kanakas like all the Oceanian people, after the Hawaiian word for 'man'.
The first missionaries from the London Missionary Society and the Marist Brothers arrived in the 1840s. In 1849, the crew of the American ship Cutter was killed and eaten by the Pouma clan. Cannibalism was widespread throughout New Caledonia.

On September 24, 1853, under orders from Napoleon III, Admiral Febvrier Despointes took formal possession of New Caledonia and Port-de-France (Nouméa) was founded June 25, 1854. A few dozen free settlers settled on the west coast in the following years. New Caledonia became a penal colony, and from the 1860s until the end of the transportations in 1897, about 22,000 criminals and political prisoners were sent to New Caledonia, among them many Communards, including Henri de Rochefort and Louise Michel. Between 1873 and 1876, 4,200 political prisoners were "relegated" in New Caledonia. Only forty of them settled in the colony, the rest returned to France after being granted amnesty in 1879 and 1880.

In 1864 nickel was discovered on the banks of the Diahot River and with the establishment of the Société Le Nickel in 1876 mining began in earnest. The French imported labourers to work in the mines, first from neighbouring islands, then from Japan, the Dutch East Indies and French Indochina. The French government also attempted to encourage European immigration, without much success.
The indigenous population was excluded from the French economy, even as workers in the mines, and they were ultimately confined to reservations. This sparked a violent reaction in 1878 as High Chief Atal of La Foa managed to unite many of the central tribes and launched a guerrilla war which cost 200 Frenchmen and 1,000 Kanaks their lives. The Kanak population declined from around 60,000 in 1878 to 27,100 in 1921, and their numbers did not increase again until the 1930s.
In June 1940, after the fall of France, the Conseil General of New Caledonia voted unanimously to support the Free French government, and in September the pro-Vichy governor was forced to leave for Indochina. In March 1942, with the assistance of Australia, the territory became an important Allied base, and Nouméa the headquarters of the United States Navy and Army in the South Pacific. The fleet which turned back the Japanese navy in the Battle of the Coral Sea in May 1942 was based at Noumea. American troops counted up to 50,000 men, the equivalent of the contemporary population. In 1946 New Caledonia became an overseas territory. By 1953 French citizenship had been granted to all New Caledonians, regardless of ethnicity.
The European and Polynesian populations gradually increased in the years leading to the nickel boom of 1969–72, and the Melanesians became a minority, though they were still the largest single ethnic group. Between 1976 and 1988, New Caledonia adopted five different statutes, with each proving to be a source of discontent and, at times, serious disorder, culminating in 1988 with a bloody hostage taking in Ouvéa. The Matignon Agreements, signed on June 26, 1988, ensured a decade of stability. The Noumea Accord signed May 5, 1998, set the groundwork for a 20-year transitional period that will gradually transfer competences to the local government.


This is list of countrie's in Australlia continent..
13. Marshall Islands – Majuro
31.Kiribati – South Tarawa 32.Micronesia – Palikir 33.New Zealand – Wellington

How To Make Money In Australlia ??



Politics of New Caledonia

New Caledonia is a sui generis collectivity that has been gradually transferred certain powers from France. It is governed by a 54-member Territorial Congress, a legislative body composed of members of three provincial assemblies. The French State is represented in the territory by a High Commissioner. At a national level, New Caledonia is represented in the National Assembly by two deputies and a senator. At the 2007 French presidential election the voter turnout in New Caledonia was 68.14%.
For 25 years, the party system in New Caledonia was dominated by the anti-independence The Rally–UMP. This dominance ended with the emergence of a new party, Avenir Ensemble, also opposed to independence but considered more open to dialogue with the Kanak movement, which is part of FLNKS, a coalition of several pro-independence groups.



Administrative divisions of New Caledonia

The institutional organization is the result of the organic law and ordinary law passed by the Parliament on February 16, 1999.

The archipelago is divided into three provinces:

  • South Province (province Sud). Provincial capital: Nouméa. Population: 183,007 inhabitants (2009).
  • North Province (province Nord). Provincial capital: Koné. Population: 45,137 inhabitants (2009).
  • Loyalty Islands Province (province des îles Loyauté). Provincial capital: Lifou. Population: 17,436 inhabitants (2009).

 

Facebook
Twitter
Orkut
Youtube
 
 
WELCOME TO UNIVERSE ON WEB , PORTAL DEDICATED TO UNIVERSE...